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Sándor Timaru-Kast: Celts and Magyars /2


II. In the beginning was the Word...

The Celtic language (and its Hungarian parallels).[35]

Our everyday Hungarian language is so much a part of us that nobody raises the question as to why we use today words as srác, csitri, baka, góbé, balhé or baki. There would be nothing strange about this situation if these were not the same in Celtic too, in sound and meaning. The meaning of the above words in todays Irish: SRAC honest, lively, quarrelsome, mischievous (boy); CAITHRE adolescent girl; BUACHA young soldier; (BACÁIN military training); GORÁN funny, wily; BUALLEY [ballhé] discord, fight, argument and BACAÍ to trip; slip of the tongue (BAC barrier, bar)! All these words along with many other concepts are the "offspring" of the common language that spread in the last centurys industrialization, which was the language of the rural communities that moved into the capital city. I believe none of our linguists would ever think of making a statement that these words were brought from Ireland by a laborer, as a "borrowed" slang...

Sir John Bowring (1792-1872), English linguist, who translated many Hungarian poems into English, wrote the following in the foreword for his book "Poetry of the Magyars" which was published in 1830:

"The roots of the Magyar are for the most part exceedingly simple and monosyllabic, but their ramifications are numerous, consistent, and beautiful. I know of no language which presents such a variety of elementary stamina, and none which lends itself so easily and gracefully to all the modifications growing out of its simple principles."

In the Bible we read "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God."

- in the beginning was the Word: ige in Hungarian, GU in Irish: to speak, to give voice, word (<=> Hungarian ige, hang),

- and the Word was God: GUÍ [gí] prayer, (ég = God, ige = word of God),

- and God was the Word: ég, aga <=> Finn UKKO <=> Hun, Ancient Türk OGAN "Sky-God" <=> Irish OGHMA "a very strong, eloquently speaking, defending god, god of death and at the same time god of joy, wealth and wisdom too, who is like the Sun, the Sungod".

Considering the above, the question seems justified:

What language did the Celts speak? Is the Hungarian language related to the Celtic language, or the Celtic to the Hungarian language?

We know regrettably little about the ancient Celts, but we did inherit the immense material and spiritual legacy of a great people. We have discovered by now that, not only the names of some weapons (like gladius - CALAD in Celtic, kard in Hungarian), but also words of technical advancements which went from Celtic into Latin. (Who were the heirs?). So the Latin "sagi" (sack) originated from the Celtic SEAC (zeke), which originally meant a cloak. The fact came to light within contemporary research (Ellis: 'Die Druiden') that the roads crisscrossing Europe were not built by the Romans but by the Celts, before the Roman occupation, to accommodate the ox-drawn wagons, the CARBANTU: CAR means wagon, BAINT (vont, össze-vont, vonat, etc.) to attach, to pull as one (train).

The "official" linguists state that the Celtic language is Indo-Germanic, even though, if we only look at some geographic names, or names of the "gods" or important persons, - and these even in Latinized form - from Ireland to Hungary, we can barely state that it is Indo-Germanic in character. Such is ANU, the "Ancient Mother", (ős-anya) "the mother of the Irish Gods" ('Mater deorum Hibernensium' - Cormacs Glossary), or ESUS, the ancient God of the Gauls (Welsh OES - old, ancestor; ősz, ős), or the old Irish DAGHDHA, the Good God (Good-father) - who was also called NUADHU "The Great God" or EU-CHAIDH "great-great-grandfather" and also RUADH ROFESSA, "the red-haired cunning one" - who was the son of DANU (Good Mother) and Bel (Father-God) and so the "ancient father of all Celts". We may also remember ULAID, the Irish leader, who was the "first" on his land, the Irish "CUIGE ULAIDH" - (Előd vidéke) = the land of the forefather, the English Ulster county (Northern-Ireland), or the Gallic freedom-fighter and hero VERCINGETORIX and his castle called AVARICUM, and it would be truly difficult to call all these Indo-Germanic words and names. Interestingly the "Franks" who moved into Gallia did not dream of a common Indo-Germanic base, since todays French city of "Bourges" (German Burg, meaning castle, vár) was built upon the ruins of "Avaricum". Are these incidental correspondences, or simply translations?

One more word about the Franks: In Breton, FRANKIZ means free, independent. After Atillas victorious battle the BRO FRANKIZ was born, which means "Free Empire!" According to the Frankish origin saga, a huge white sow (Hu. Emse) came out of the sea and bore the first Merovingian King. (In Hungarian tradition, "Emese" was the mother of Almos, ancestor of the Magyars.) The Merovingians were also buried with partial horse funerals, like the incoming Magyars of the 9th century. The Merovingian dynasty was destroyed too...

Can there be some connection - relationship - between the Celtic and Hungarian languages?

In order to be able to give an answer we have to examine the characteristics of the Celtic language (languages):

  • - Emphasis plays no decisive role in the meaning of the word.

  • - In speech, the accent is always on the first syllable of the word.

  • - The simple (not composite) words are generally either deep-tone or high-tone, the postposition after the root word follows a vowel harmony unknown to the Indogermanic languages:

URRA lord, úr in Hungarian; URR-AIM honor / GAOIS [gis] intelligence; GAOIS-EACH [giseh] intelligent

  • - According to sound-rules, the Irish language occasionally uses additional sounds to bridge the sounds for postpositions: FUIL blood, > FUIL-T-EACH bloody; ACAOIN

  • - wailing cry ACAOIN-T-EACH painful.

- The Irish language strongly differentiates the short and long vowels both in speech and writing: A - Á, E - É, I - í, O - Ó, U - Ú: ALTÁN mountain pass, brook BEITHÉ ridicule, to mock, CIPÍN stick, ORDÓG thumb, URRÚS stronghold.

  • - The Irish also use very soft consonants in their speech: Gy (GEARU acceleration, gyorsulás; ROGILE sparkling, ragyogó; DIÚNAS hardheaded, ÉIDE uniform, egyenruha); Ty (TIMIRE messenger, AINTIN sister in law, an older lady, ángy, néne); Ny (NÍOCHÁN wash, BAIN mine, bánya); Ly (LEANNÁN a lover, SÁIBLE [szablya] sable, szablya); soft R (BÁIRE-oir [báror] =competitor, VERS(eny)-ző <=> as opposed to the 'hard' R - BÁIRSE-oir [bársor] = VERS-elő poetry reciter.

  • - The Celtic language does not like to use clusters of consonants even in "adopted", borrowed words:

Welsh YSGOL (school), YSBATA (hospital - ISPOTÁLY), etc.

  • - Definite article only is the same as in the Hungarian language. In Welsh Y [a] and YR [ar]: Y GWR [a gúr]= a férfi, férj = the man, husband and YR YFANC [ar ifank] = the youth ifjú, ifjonc. The same in Irish - A, AN, N' (in Manx Y [a], YN [an]): A CUACH (the embrace) = a csók in Hungarian and AN OS = az őz in Hungarian, meaning the deer.

  • - Pronouns:

  • Personal ending: FUIR-IM (vár-om - my castle), CEANGALANN TÚ (göngyöl-öd - you are rolling it up); BEIR (elbír ő - he can carry you); Welsh MAE E (van ő - he is), Welsh MAEN NHW (van-nak - they are).

  • Possessive pronoun: M-ATHAIR (apá-m - my father); D-ATHAIR (apá-d - your father); A ATHAIR (apja - his father); ATHAIR-NA (apá-n-k - our father); Manx CHASS AYM (láb-am - my foot), CHASS AYD (láb-ad - your foot), CHASS E {láb-a - his/her foot).

  • Reflexive pronoun: FÉIN [pron.: hény], Manx HENE (ön- you); "SÍNN FÉIN" ("mi magunk" - we ourselves).

  • Demonstrative pronoun: SIN, SEO / Ancient Irish SA, SE = Hu: az, ez (Japanese SONO - this, that); ÚD = az a, az ott - that, that there (AN TULÁN ÚD THALL - az a dűlő, a dűlő ott túl - that path beyond).

  • - Conjunctions, suffixes, affixes:

  • Conjunction: ES, IS, S, Ancient Irish OS, Manx AS = és, is, s (compare Japanese SHI - and) kopula (it is a conjunction, which is part of the verbal part of the verbal noun): IS (is; compare Turkish ISE de, is, még - but, too, yet); IS MAITH LIOM TAE (igenis) teát kérek ~ IS MÉLTÓ VELEM TEA[36] - by all means I am asking for tea.

  • In negative sentences: NI, nem, CHA, se, sem - neither / in interrogative sentences: AN [e'] AN TÁ van-e = is there. Negative particle: ish NÍ, NEAMH, Breton NE, NAM, NE, NEM; ish NÁ! NE!

Ir: NACH (NE- + CHA) = Hu: sem; > NACH MÓR, NACH BEAG Hu: se-nem nagy, se-nem kicsi - it is neither big, nor small

NIL (NÍ-BHFUIL) [NÍ=NEM + (BH)FUIL=VALA], nincs [NEM-IS] there is no...

  • - Other conjunctions:

  • Irish ACH (Magyar CSAK) > NÍL AGAM ACH É , nincs nekem csak ö - all I have is him/her

  • ÁMH (ÁM, ÁM-de > see Turkish AMA, Japanese DE MO but, yet)

  • ha / [DE + A] de (DE, HA > see Turkish DE but, yet)

  • DE BHARR habár (DEBÁR - HABÁR > see Turkish BARI although)

  • GO (hogy - that) > DEIR SÉ GO BHFUIL DEIFIR AIR; mondja, hogy siet, Mondja, hogy vala sietség reá, mondja, hogy sietnéke van

  • FARA olyan mint, aféle (FÉLE)[37] - it is like...

  • MAR, mert, mint, hamar > mer (mert), már (mint), ha-már > MAR ATÁ, MAR A BHÍ, éspedig, már van, mint (a) volt, úgy van, amint volt - it is as it used to be

  • NI (mi, ami, vala-mi)[38] something

  • - Adverbs, affixes:

  • nominative and accusative - the Irish language has no accusative-suffix, and the old Magyar language probably did not use any either, since some of todays expressions prove this: széna kaszálni, adó-szedő, szőlő-szedő etc.

  • vocative:

  • A DHUINE UASAIL, Ó Felség (Oh, Your Majesty), A CHAILÍN, Ó leány (> Turkish GELIN menyecske) (Oh girl)

  • genitive suffix:

  • AG (-nak, -nak) or -N, -A, -E () as possessive suffixes:

  • SIN AG-AT É tied, az nek-ed ő (az nek-ed-é) - it is yours MAITHE NA TÍR-E a vidék, terület (földes)ura, méltó(sága) a tér-nek

  • CÚ-N, kutyá-nak; CEAN-A, szerelem-é; CÉIR-E, feketeség-é (> Turkish KARA fekete)

  • dative-suffix - it has a function as verbal suffix, the same as in Magyar:

  • AG (Hu: -nak, -nek / -nál., -nél); TÁ BEIRT MHAC AIGE, van két fia neki

  • AR (-on / -ra, -re); AR GHRÁ DÉ, (az) Isten szerelmé-re

  • adverb of place:

  • DO (-ba, -be / -ra, -re > Turkish -jA, -jE) > DUL (indul) DO BÚDAIPEIST

  • ÁIT hely (itt, ott) <=> óvó-da, csár-da, szálló-da, jár-da

  • ÚD (az-ott, am-ott) > see Turkish -DA (ev-de házban)

  • SA, SAN (-ba(n), -be(n) > see Finn -SSA, -SSÁ -ban, -ben) GO MALL SAN OICHE, későéjjel, késő-ig éj(szaká)-ban

  • INNIU (innen), UAINN (onnan)

  • THALL (túl); THALL TOINN, tengeren túl

  • prepositional affix = from:

  • DÁ, DE, DEN (-tól,-től / -ból, -ből /-ról, -ről > Turkish -DAN,-TAN)

  • Ó from (-i) > in family names: Ó NIALL, -I, Gyula-I, Miklós-I

  • prepositional affix = to:

  • GO, Manx GYS (-hoz,-hez) <=> Welsh AGOS (köz-el) DUL MÉ GO MO MNÁ, indul-ok asszony-om-hoz

  • preposition of place:

  • Ir: LE (-val, -vel > Türkish ILE,-LE)

  • MAILLE (Hu: mellé, mellett)

  • Prepositions:

  • GO (-ig); GO GLÚINE SAN UÍSCE; térd-ig víz-ben

  • GO (am-úgy, em-így); (ám, noha)

  • Adverb of time

  • Ó (ó-ta); Ó BREACHAD, reggel óta, pirkadat-óta

  • GO (-ig); GO AN T'EARRACH, tavasz-ig; NUIGE (míg)

  • HUAIR (-kor > see old Türkish QUR aetas, time, rank)

  • Numeral adverb: CUAIRT (-szer, -szor > vö. Türkish KERE -szer, -szór)[39] -

  • Other adverbs

  • ATH- (át- / utó- / ód-on régi, elavult = old / od-ébb > vö. Türkish OTE messzébb)

  • AIS back, again (is-mét > Japanese MADA again)

  • AIS- = vissza- (> see Türkmen IZ hát > IZA back,; old-Türkish ISRÁ (hátul))[40]

  • Suffixes:

  • -L verbal suffix (frequentative > see Korean IL does): ADHARC-ÁIL, szúr, döf (agancs-ol); GUAILL-EÁIL, vállal [denomj; SÁBH-ÁIL, 'szab-d-al', TÓCH-AIL, tőkéd; COM-ÁIL, hám-ol; CEANG-AIL [deverb.] (szép-ül, jav-ul, váll-al, kiab-ál, ugr-ál, dob-ál, repül, asz-al)

  • -L nominal suffix: SÁIBH-ÁIL [denominál]; TOG-ÁIL , GABH-ÁIL [deverbial] (szem-ély, köt-él, fed-él)

  • -D / -T verbal suffix: SCAIR-T, csörget; SCAIR-D, csurgat; SAIGH-ID (et-et, it-at, néz-et, kér-et, vár-at, szagg-at)

  • -D / -T nominal suffix: MAG-ADH [maga], móka; ROIS-EADH [rosé] rés (slit) (szó-z-at, terül-et, szig-et, dolgoz-at, fogász-at)

  • -G / -K verbal suffix: SLO-G, sereget gyűjt; TOL-G, tolakszik; CEAL-G, csal(-og) (moz-og, forr-og, csill-og, vill-og, in-og, csosz-og)

  • G / -K nominal suffix: BÁIST-EACH, eső; BEAL-ACH, út, szoros, nyílás; TATH-AG, test (gyer-ek, ör-eg, hor-og, ür-eg, vil-ág, üv-eg)

  • The Irish language is an agglutinative language, even today, and this again separates it from the Indo-European languages. Julius Pokorny attributes the "clustering of postpositions” in the Slavic languages to Finno-Ugric influence. (!) Here are a few examples of the Irish agglutinative word formations and the use of postpositions:

TE, meleg, forró [Old Irish AED, tűz, tűzhely; DÓ-igh, izzik, ég / Welsh DE = DEL]; TE-AS, forró-ság, hőség (TŰZ); TE-AS-AI, forró, égő, tüzes (TÜZ-I); TE-OL, melegít, hevít; TE-OL-AI, meleg (DE-L-I - TULI-piros); TE-ALL-ACH, kályha; TE-NE, tűz ("IZZ-ÁNY" > TŰZ) [> see Sumerian UDUN tűzhely].

  • Formation of words

  • Adjective formation from nouns:

  • - with the help of -EACH, -ACH suffixes (-as, -es, -os);

  • BÁ-CH (báj-os); DIAIL-ACH (dali-ás, tál-t-os); MEIRG-EACH, düh-ös (mérg-es)

  • -ÚIL, -OIL [pron.: íly/oly] (-I): AITHRI-ÚIL (atya-i); NEAMH-OIL (menny-ei)

  • Noun-formation:

  • - with affixes: -ADH, -EADH (Hu: -at, -et); adh-MHOL-ADH, dicséret (adh-MHOL, meg-emel); SILL-EADH, csillogás (csill-at), Sumerian ZAL, ragyogó; zilfény, fényes; FILL-EAD, (visszafordulás (for-dul-at)

  • - -ACH, -AGH (-ak, -ag: csill-ag, szall-ag, gyer-ek):

  • BAR-ACH, reggel (virr-ék, virradás); DIÚLT-ACH, tiltás (tilt-ék) DIÚLT-igh, megtilt, BISH-AGH, bőség (BUSA-SÁG); CEARD-AÍ-OCHT, kézművesség (GYÁRT-Ó-SÁG); FIRRIN-AGH, való-ság; FIOR, való (see fir-tat vallat)

  • - -aS (-ás); CAL-AOIS (csal-ás); SOIL-SE (csill-ás > Jakut SÜLÜS csillag)

  • - -ÁIL (-ély, -él: szem-ély, szent-ély, köt-él); TOG-ÁIL, növekedés; GABH-ÁIL, megkap(arint)ÁS (GABHÁILA, Honfoglalás = occupation of a land)

  • - -AÍ [í] (); ASARL- (varázsl-ó); ROBÁL- (rabl-ó), CEARD-ÁÍ, kézműves, kisiparos (gyárt-ó); TÓGÁL- (tákol-ó (ház)épít-ő)

  • - Ir -AINN (-any); ABH-AINN, ach(ar)-ain-í (kér-v-ény), folyó,

  • - -AM (-am; szellem; SCÁIL, til(t)-al-om; DIŰLT-Ü), urr-aim, tisztelet; DÉAN-AMH, tény-ény, tevékenység, ténykedés

  • - Irish -OIR (-or): BUAITE-OIR győző (bát-or), FUAID-IRE utazó (fut-ár), BÓITHRE-OIR útonálló, bujdosó (> BETY-ÁR) <=> see Irish BÓITHRE-OIR-EACHT koborlás, csavargás, bujdosás = to wander about aimlessly, to hide;

  • Formation of nouns dealing with occupations:

  • AOS [pron: eass, ace] -ász, -ész, -ács, ás, -os

  • AOS DANA dan-ász > dan-os (költő, regös) (dan, a form of poetry)

  • AOS CEIRD (craftsman), gyárt-ász (> CEARDAÍOCHT handicraft) In Hungarian today: vad-ász, hal-ász, lo(v)-ász, gyógy-ász, méh-ész, cip-ész, zen-ész, szín-ész, kert-ész, kov-ács, szak-ács, tak-ács, munk-ás, or(v)-os etc. [cf. Türkish -CI, CI > ari-CI, sati-CI, duvar-CI, etc.][41]

  • Verb formation

  • - Suffix of the infinitive: -IGH (Breton -IN): BORR-IGH, FÁLA-IGH, FUIR-IGH (<=> FAIR), TANA-IGH / SERR-IN, TERR-IN

  • Conjugation:

  • The intransitive (independent) and the transitive (dependent) conjugation in the Irish language: Old Irish ÍCC-U, ügyel-ek <=> ÍCC-IM, ügyel-em; D'ÍCC, ügyel-t <=> D'ÍCC-IS, ügyelt-e.

  • The verb "to be" has two forms in Irish: BÍ and TÁ (BÍM, vagyok <=> TÁIM, van nekem).

It needs to be added that, in old Irish, there was a so-called impersonal form of the verb "to be" which they wrote as FAIL, FEIL, FUIL, FILE <=> vala.

They still use this verbal form but only in interrogative sentences: AN BHFUIL vala-e.

  • The Irish language does not know the verb "to have" but expresses this with the TA form of to be, (van), just like the Magyar language (as opposed to the Indo-Germanic languages!)[42]:

TÁ SÉ AGAM, van az nekem; AGAT, neked; AIGE, neki; AGAINN, nekünk etc. (I have, you have, he has, we have, etc.) NÍL SÉ AGAM, nincs az nekem; AGAT, neked; AIGE, neki; AGAINN, nekünk etc.

  • There are three significant Hungarian - Irish correspondences in conjugations:

      1. In one type of conjugation the D' (Old Irish DE, DO) is the sign of the past tense [> see -T].

      2. In the future tense "FIDH" is the suffix, which is formed from the verb FAIGH (fog, képes lesz) <=> todays Hungarian "fog” LÉI-FIDH ME (el-FOG-OM olvasni).

      3. It is worth examining the Hungarian - Irish - Turkish conditional forms too: - olvas-ná-m <=> Irish: LÉA-IF-INN <=> Türkish: OKU-SA-M.

These are some basic characteristics which in essence separate the Irish language from the structure of the "Indo-Germanic" languages.

  • Other grammatical correspondences:

  • The adjective remains singular even if the noun is plural (!):

  • DOS UAINE, bokor zöld (> zöld bokor); DOSANNA UAINE, bokrok zöld (> zöld bokrok).

  • After numerals the noun remains singular:

  • (AON) DUINE, (egy) személy; DHÁ DUINE, két személy; CÉAD DUINE, száz., sok személy; (one person, two people, a hundred, or many people).

  • The Irish language - just like the Hungarian - has both prefixes and suffixes. The Hungarian language is the only "Ural-Altaic" language which uses prefixes(!). The modern Irish has mostly lost its old suffixes.

  • Prefixes: In the Irish language the AR prefix (Scottish AIR) always signals a fully completed action.

  • AR, el- (AR SIÚL, el-szal-ad / AR-FOG, el-kezd ~ neki-fog)

  • AG (Old Irish AD-), meg- (AG ITHE, meg-eszi / AD-BAIL, meg-hal)

  • FOR-, föl (FOR-MHÉADA-igh, föl-nagy-ít)

  • AS el, ki. Hu: osz-, isz- (AS-LUI, osz-oly, isz-kiri elinnen, eliszkolj) etc.

  • Suffixes: (only a few which were preserved in old writings for posterity)[43], such as:

  • -AR (-ér-t), -CO (-hoz, -hez), -LA, -LE (-val, -vel), -ÚI (-I > pl. marosvásárhely-i)

  • Declination of prefixes and suffixes with personal pronouns is the same in Magyar; as:

    LE-M (vel-em) CU-C-UM (hoz-z-ám) FOR-UM (föl-ém)
    LE-AT (vel-ed) CU-C-UT (hoz-z-ád) FOR-UT (föl-éd)
    LE-IS (vel-e) CU-C-Í (hoz-z-á) FOR-Í (föl-é)
  • Plural: The Irish language uses three suffixes (-aCHA, -aNNA, -TA)

  • - INÍON-ACHA, leány-ok; GAEL-ACHA, -ek; TANAÍ-OCHA, tav-ak etc

  • - LEAID-EANNA, legények etc. (indicating the plural > hoz-n-ak)

  • - GÁR-THA, kiáltások; DÚN-TA, tanyák etc (> finn TALO-T, házak, POJ-AT, ifjak, fiúk).

  • Comparison of adjectives: Welsh, Breton -AFF (-abb): TEC-AFF, szebb; HYN-AFF, vénebb etc.

  • Another trait of the Irish language is similar to the Magyar language, in regard to double body parts (eyes, legs, etc.). If we talk about only one of these (like an eye), then this is expressed by adding the word "half" (LEATH): half leg, half eye: LEATHLÁMHACH, félkezű; LEATAOBHACH, féloldali etc.; (lit. translation: half handed, half sided, etc.)

  • Cf.: LEATHEAN, "fél-madár' (half a bird) = a madár párja (the pair of the bird) (cf. felesége wife, lit. half); LEATHFHOCAL, "félszó" (jelszó).

  • Others: EILE / Breton ALL, második: EIL (second)

  • Diminutive suffix: Irish -OG (Ancient Irish -AC, -IC, -OC, -OC, -UC) and Breton -IK (Magyar -KA, -KE):

  • Ancient Irish OSS-OC = ÖZ(I)-KE (OIS-ÍN, őzgida), FÉSS-ÓC = BAJSZ-KA; IN-ÍON-ÓG - JÁNY-KA, Breton YAR-IK - JÉR-CE (tyúkocs-ka) <=> Breton YAR (Welsh IÁR), tyúk.

  • Suffixes for names, to distinguish the feminine names: Irish <=> / -NÉ (Máire Ní Ógáin)

  • Furthermore, the Irish language does not have any modal constructions; like Hungarian, it does not use imperative verbs. In Irish, as in Hungarian, the word KELL (Irish CEAL) means "something necessary from an inner urge, it is needed". They can express imperative words by circumscribing them. In the Indo-Germanic languages (as in German) they are independent verbs.

  • Interrogative words: (Ki); CÁ HUAIR (Mi-kor); CÉN (Hány); CÉN UAIR (Hányszor); Ancient Irish CUN hoi (old Magyar, Székely hun); CAD, Hogy; CAD É MAR TÁ TU [kagyémartátú] hogy or (the greeting) Hogy már vagy te?

  • Interrogative particle: AN [-e] AN TÁ TARRAN AR AN MBORD?, Van-e kenyér az asztal-on? (Is there bread on the table?)

  • The Celts don't have a word for "Yes": it is characteristic to give the answer with the verb of the sentence, in the same grammatical mode (and time) as it is in the question, just as in Hungarian. AN TÁ TEACH TABHAIRNE ANN? (Van-e csárda errefelé?) > TÁ (Van) / NÍL (Nincs) - AN TUIGEANN TÚ GAEILGE? (Tudsz-e írül?) > TUIGIM, tudok / NÍ THUIGIM, nem tudok.

  • Syntax: The Irish sentence compositions strive toward the essence, as do the Hungarian; the verb always introduces the content and so the sentence always moves from the important factors toward the less important ones.

Nem bánt az téged kap(hat)od te őt csak fizess
Nincs rám munka, amit tennem térj (rá) vissza ("visz-ra")[44]

Talking about the Celtic syntax, Sir John Morris Jones writes in his work: a 'Pre-Aryan Syntax in Insular Celtic that, even though linguists consider the Insular Celtic language to be Indo-Germanic, he believes that, according to their sentence structure, they are not.[45] It is no accident that the Irish call themselves "The Magyars of the West.” If we examine the Irish vocabulary, we find familiar word-groups, like: KÖR.

Hungarian Celtic English French German Russian
KOR-csoly-a CARR-sleamh-na SKATE PATIN SCHLIT(schuh) ?

We can see, from the above table, that only the Hungarian and Celtic languages have a true word-group for the word "kör" / circle. In the other Indo-European languages there are some connections with this word but by far not as often. I believe no sane person could imagine that the similarity of the Hungarian and Celtic word-groups was born by some kind of "chance" occurrence (this many incidental similarities would be a little too much!) or - according to the usual norms - that the Magyar took over the "kör" word-group from the Celts in total, or even that, by dipping into different sources and walking a different path, these words "evolved" into the same words. Undoubtedly, many English, French or German words originated from the Celtic, for example the French CLAIE = barrier, korlát in Hungarian. Other words belonging to the "KÖR" group are the following: kar-ima (CUAR, CRUINN, roundness, kerekség); ker-get (Old Irish GRENNAT, they chase, kergetnek; GUAREN to circle, kering köröz, környez; ker-ülő (COR, detour, kerülő; COR bealaig, detour, kerülő út); kör-ít (CÓIR-igh, köríteni; CÓIRIÚ, körítés); kör-nyék (má-GUAIRD, környék); kör-őz (GUAIRDEALL, körözés; GUAIRE, keringés); kör-ül (CUIR thart, körbe jár, körbe tart; CHUR ort, körös-körül); kör-zet (CRÍOCH, terület, vidék); kur-ta (GEARR, GAIRIDí; CIORRA- - GIORRA-); csavar (COR, csavar, csőről); forgat (FIAR, ferdít, ferdül), forgó csípő (CORR-óg hip, csípő); göndör (COIRNIN, göndör); görcs (CRANRA, görcs); gördül (COR, gurul); görnyed (CORADH, görnyedés, görbület; CUAR, görnyedt, görbe); perdül (COR, fordul, gurul perdül; perget (CORRA-igh, kavar, forgat, kering; COIRE, forgás, pörgés); teker (TOCHRAS, tekerés, Manx TOGHYR to twist, teker, felcsavar); her-g-el (CORR-aíl, hergelés) etc.

Of course these are not "accidents", our common past greets us in these. The Magyar and the Irish (Celtic) language form their words from similar word-groups, with similar suffixes and prefixes. The difference lies in the fact that they do not always attach identical suffixes or prefixes to a word-root.

"The Finno-Ugric theory is unproven. One cannot differentiate certain parallels in vocabulary which are valid only among the Finno-Ugric languages, but not for the other Eurasian languages, like the Altaj languages, the Turkish, Mongolian, Sumerian, etc.> [...] This applies to the original basic vocabulary and, in the research of language relationships, including the Finno-Ugric relationship, it is believed to be decisively important. Such categories of vocabulary belong here too, like pronouns, names of parts of the body, some objects or phenomena of nature, basic words of action and numerals..." writes László Marácz in his study: "A finnugor-elmélet tarthatatlansága nyelvészeti szempontból" (The Untenability of the Finno-Ugric Hypothesis from a Linguistic Point of View) [Túrán no. 5, November 1998, p.ll.].

When we attempt to form an opinion about the relationship of two languages, we have to deal with three main themes. In respect to the Hungarian-Celtic relationship, we have already talked about the similarities between the first two, the grammatical structure and syntax. I would like to talk here about the ancient layer of vocabulary. As Mrs. Zoltán Zsuffa wrote in her book 'Gyakorlati Magyar Nyelvtan' (Practical Hungarian Grammar):

"Undoubtedly we mean the words that describe a simple lifestyle, coexistence, the plants and animals of human environment and the words which denote our dealings with them" (p. 379); later she added: "Our vocabulary has preserved the evidence of its original place of belonging"

I found more than 1800 basic words, identical or similar, and these indicate a close relationship. Such are for example: Irish CEANN, Breton PENN and Hungarian fej, fő (személy); végrész (kéz-/láb-FEJ).

  • - Names of body-parts: TATH-ag, test (tetem); BIANN, bőr, bőnye; FIONN-adh [fona], szőr, fan; FÉSS, bajusz; CEANN (PENN), fej; ÉICSE, ész; AIGNE, elme (agy); COND, gond(olkozás); SÚIL, szem; CLUAS, fül / hallás; SÚIL [szúly], száj; FIACAL Jog (foka vm-nek'); COGUAS, gége; SCÓG, szegy; CHÍCH, csecse; TARR törzs; BOL, has; BOLG, gyomor, begy, hólyag; DEIREOIM, gerinc (DEIR-eadh, hát O see Türkish GERI hát); FOIRCEANN, vég; BUN,fenék; MÉAR, ujj (MÁM, marék); DÉARNA, tenyér (tere-nye); LAPA, láb, mancs, uszony; SEIR, sarok; CRÓ, vér (CRUA, vörös); FUIL, vér (FUIL-EADÁN, véredény); FOIRGTHE [foraka), pörk, etc.

  • - Words of family relationships: GAOL, család, nemzetség; ANU, anya; AITE, (nevelő)atya; BEAN, asszony, öregasszony (banya); FEAR, férfi, férj; MAMÓ, nagyanya; DAIDEO, nagyapa; GARMHAC, gyermek, unoka; GARLACH, gyerek, kölyök; MAC,fiú (mag); LEIAN, leány; CUILEANN, szépleány, szőkeleány (see Türkish GELIN, menyecske) BÁB, menyecske, szerető, ÓG, ifjú, öcskös; ÓGLAG, HOGYN, legény; LAID, legény; ÉI-GIN, egy, egyik > egyén etc.

  • - Objects and phenomena of nature: NEAMH, Menny; GRIAN (GER + AN, óriás (gar) fény) Nap; GAELACH, ("fehéren csillogó") Hold; ROGILE, ragyogó; (RÉ(g)AL, kivilágosodik = REGGEL); RÉALTA, csillag; SILL-eadh, csillogás; BREACADH, virrad (pirkad); FIONN, fehér, fényes (FÉNY); GOLAU, fény (VIL-ág) O Welsh: GWLAD [gúlád], Világ, SNUA, szín; CIAR, sötét, komor (see Türkish KARA, fekete); OIE, éj; TOIRNEACH, dörgés (durranás); TENE, tűz (TEAS, tüzesség); CHE, hő; BRUITH-ean, pára; CEO, köd; DUREO, dér; IA, jég; EAS, vízesés (eső); UÍSCE, víz; BOR, pezsgő víz (BOR-víz); TUILE, folyó, hatalmas ár (etel); TONN, tenger (óír DON); BÉAL, folyótorkolat (öböl); TANAÍ, sekély vizű tó; ATÓIN, zátony; LOG, lyuk; BEARNA, verem; BED (FÓD), föld; THAL-LOO, talaj; GREAN, göröngy; CLOCH (KAILH), kő; SCEILG, szikla; CARRAIG, kéreg, hegyhát; ARD-án, fennsík (vö. francia ARD-ennes <=> 'ERD-ély'); MÁIG, máglya; TULÁN, TULACH, dűlő; PORT, part; MÚR, magas part (mered > meredek); FRAOCH, berek; RIT, (vizes)rét; ÁTH, gázló (asz); LÁIB, láp; SAIL, sár etc.

  • - Vegetation: FID, fa; FÉAR, fű; TÓCH, gyökeret ereszt, töked (<=> see TOICE, vagyon, töke; TOICI, tőkés); GEÁG, ág; FÁS, vessző; LUIBH, növény, gyom (LAPU); SIOL, sarj, csira; GENAU, fenyő (Türkish gAM); ULL, alma; MÁ, MAGH (Ancient Irish), MAEZ (Breton); mező etc.

  • - Animals: LOEN, lény; ALLAID, állat; FIAD, vad; AG, ágas, szarvas (ADH-arc, agancs); OSS, őz; MARCA, ló; LÓTH, ló; EACH, ló (asza); EACH-AIRE, lovász (huszár?); MAIRT, szarvasmarha; BOOAG, tehén (buga); DAMH, ökör (see Türkish TANA ökör) tinó; CÚ, kutya; ABACH, eb; FAOLCHÚ, farkas [FIADH-MHIOL + CHÚ = vad(-ál-lat)kutya]; BROC, borz (Mongol BORKI); LEON oroszlán; ADAR, madár (Japanese TORI); SEABHAC [sauk], sólyom; IOLAR [ilér], sas (ülü); CARÓG, FRAO, varjú; CÁG, csóka; GÓIC, kakas; YAR, tyúk; YARIC, jérce; CIRCE, csirke; LACHA, kacsa (réce); GÉIS, hattyú (see Türkish KAZ, lúd); COLÚR, gerle; FILIMÉALA, fülemüle; FÉILECAN, pillangó (see FÉIL, pilla, pólya, fátyol); BÓÍN (BUG), bogár; FÍOGACH, fogas (hal); EO-CHRAÍ [ochrí], (hal)ikra; UBH, WY, VI, tojás (ív, ívik, ivar) etc.

  • - House, household: TEACH, ház; CÓNAITHE, kunyhó (O CÓNAÍ, hon), BALLA, fal; FÁL, palánk; CAB, nyílás (KAPU); CLO, kilincs (see Türkish KOLU); TÉAGAR, takaró; PUIC, pokróc; PALLENN, takaró (pelenka); RUGArongy; ABHRAS, abrosz; SUÍO-CHÁN, szék; JYST, üst; TÚLÁN, tál; MEADAR, (fejő)veder; CRÚSCA, korsó; CÁS, kas, kosár; SÍOTHLÁN, szűrő, szita; MAOS, áztat (mos); GÚNA, ruha (gúnya); CABH-áil, kabát; MAELLAN, mellény; COCHALL, csuklya; SEAC, zeke; CÓITIN, kötény, köpeny; CRIOS, öv, szíjú; BROG, cipő, saru, rövidszárú csizma; TACAR, utánzat, képmás, hamisítvány (tükör); CIAR, gyertya, viasz etc.

  • - Agriculture, animal husbandry: GORT, kert; VETU, vet; ÁR, feldúl, elpusztít (arat); CÉACHTA, eke (c£ GÉAG, ág); ÁITH, aszó; CRÓ, karám; GÍOLLA, gulyás; AOIRE, [íre] őr; CÍOBAR, juhász (c£ Türkish gOBAN); CEANGAL, kötő, göngyöleg (> kengyel?) etc.

  • - Dining, merry-making: ITH (EE- e-), eszik; YFED (IU-1-), iszik; FIUCHjő; BEÍR, főz, forral; BRUITH, Hu: párol (cf. Ir. BRUITH-ean pára), LÉ-acht, folyadék, lé; OL, ital; CWRW [kúrú], sör; CÍOCH, kása; TAÓS, TEISEN, tészta; COIP-eadh (köpül); HUF-en, hab, krém; MEZ, méz; GOIR, só (géra); SA-lann, (lemez-/kristály-)só; SAILL, szalonna; CÉILÍ, mulatság, kaláka; SEINM, zene; SEINN, zenél; DEILÍN, dal; COR, forgós-pörgős tánc (cf. COR, csörlő); SCORAIOCHT, szórakozás (cf. SCOIR, szór); SOITH, szajha; MAGADH, móka etc.

  • - Sport: LÚBÁN, labda; IMIRT, mérkőzés, menet (IM-igh, menni / IMIR, (meg)mérni, mérkőzni); CHELL, játék (csel); LÚITH, lótás, futás; RÚID, rajt, BARRÓG, birok, birkózás etc.

  • - Weapons: BATA, bot; BUN, bunkó; BUAL-t-éan, ütőszeg (cf. BUAIL, pall) BWYELL, balta; SÁIL, szál(-fa); GA, kopja; COLG, kard (Old Irish: CALAD); SÁIBLE, szablya (cf. SÁBH, vág, szab); SÁIGH-ead, nyíl (szeg), SAIGHDIÚIR, nyilas; ÁIGE, íjász, TÁBALL, parittya ("dobálló"), etc.

  • - Mining, industry, commerce, transport: BAIN [bany] bányászik, BONN (fém-)pénz; CABHA, kovács; TÁIRGE-óir, tárkány; OBAIR, munka (ipar); CAR, kerék (CARBANTU, szekér); Welsh: CWCH, csónak (cf. Türkish KAYIK, Jakut XAJIK), HWYL [húal] hajó (HWYLIO hajós); TOICE, tőke (TOICÍ, tőkés); EARRA, Magyar árú; ÚS, haszon, kamat (vö. Türkish ASI) etc.

  • - Society, army, government: ÚRRA, úr, vezér / őr; CEANN, fejedelem (kán); BO-DACH, ispán (vajda); FLAITH, [FIÚ/ő + LÁ- + -ITH nom.suffix] lovas-vezér, nemzetségfő (lófő); LAEACH, lovas(-harcos); BUACHA, fiatal katona (baka); BACAN, katonai kiképzés; SEKELL, 'kiváló, kemény harcos' (csákányos, pörölyös); GAISCE, hős; BUAITEOIR, győző (bátor); GÍOLLA, fiatal vezér (gyula); NUADHA, vezér, fejedelem (nádor); MIDHIR, főbíró, felhatalmazott ('megyer'-törsz?) <=> Türkish MÜDÜR, vezérigazgató; SAOR, [szír] szabadember; COIMHÉADI, követ, kém; BARN, BREUT, BRIW, bíró; BRIOD, birtok (cf. BEÍR, bír, tart); CÓIP, csapat; CAD, had; CATH, csata; CABHAIR, háború; ÚIR, fold; YEER,föld, ország (OR-szág); DÚN, tanya; BAILE, PLU, falu; CATHAIR, (nagy)város, kerek vár (Old Magyar KÁTA); CAER, KER, vár; város; RIATH, erőd etc.

  • - Religion: ANU, Anya(istennő); DANU Jó-Anya; DUINN, (Is-)Ten; DAGHDHA, Jóisten (Jó-Atya); NEAMH, Menny; NAOMH, nemes, szent (see Türkish NIMET Magyar áldás); NEMED, szentély; TUAR, isteni jel, ómen (TUARÚIL, megjósoló; isteni sug-allatú, csodálatos, kísérteties); HUD, csoda; DRAOTA, druida (torda); ALTA-igh, megáld (ALTÚ, áldás); CEALL, templom (igal); GUÍ, ima (ige); DIAIL, táltos (dalia); RÁM-HAILLE, révülés; REIC, rege; RIONN, róni (RIABH, rovás); OGH-am, ékírás; CÍN, könyv (CÍNLAE, napló); IRIS, hírlap; ÍOC, gyógyít (javít) <=> IACH (DAGH), jó, CÓGAS, gyógyszer, BÁ, báj; BAI, baj; CUR, betegség, kór (COIR, hiba; CEARR, kár, károsodás); SÍÚIL, tündér (sellő); NAS-adh, nász; MIONN, női korona, párta / eskü (> menyecske / menyegző); TÚARE, étkezés, lakoma, halotti tor; BÁS, halál (pusztulás, vész); SÍ (SIDH), SÍR, sírhalom, 'tündérdomb', etc.

  • - Numbers: SUIM, szám (SUIM-igh, számol; SUIM-lú, számla) <=> see. Chuvash-Türk SUM, szám; CEANN, fej, fő; fejdelem; egy; CÉAD, első; EILE / Breton ALL, más; EIL, második; CEAD, sok, száz (see kabard KOD, sok); SÁR, felülmúlhatatlan (szer-) <=> EZER(?), etc.

  • - Time, situations: RÉ, rég; ARIUC, örök; ANOIS, most; MEANDAR, mindjárt; AGOS, közel; YMAITH, messze; NOON, innen; UAINN, onnan; THALL, túl; RAON, irány etc.

  • - Quality, quantity: OES, UZ, ős, előd; HEN, vén; OET, idős; ÁR-sa, öreg (O RE, rég); ATH, d, ódon; ÚR, új; DE A, jó (ED-es?); IAWN, IACH, jó, jól; REZEUDIG, rossz, rozoga; COIGIL, kegyelmez; SAONTA, őszinte; CUNÚS, gonosz; SADB, [szajb] szép (-> SAIBHIR, gazdagember); DEAS, díszes; GRÁNNA, csúnya, fránya; GER, gar (hatalmas); ARRACHT, óriás; MÉAD, nagy; CÉAD, sok; BAIL, bő; BIS, bős(éges); BACH, kicsi (pici); BRAON, parány; MION, MAN, apró (> manó); GAIRID, rövid (kurta); URRÚS-ach, erős (ÚRRA, erő); GWAN, gyenge; BOG, puha; LAG, lágy; KUNV, könnyű; TUIL, tele; UIREAS-ach, üres; GEIR, kövér; SEANG, sovány; MÉITH, gazdag, módos; ANÁS, ínség; OLC, rossz, szegény, nyomorult (olcsó, ócska, ocsmány); FUADAR, gyors (fudri); LEASC, lassú (LEISCIÚIL, LHIASTEY, lusta); LOICEACH, munkakerülő, 'lógós' (<=> LOIC, meglóg vm elöl); MALL, lassú, buta, gyenge (málé); BAOTH, buta; BUILE, hülye; DAILLE, dilis; SAOI, bölcs (eszes); GAOIS [gís], okos; ÉIGEAS, ügyes; EOLACH, jeles; FIÚNTACH, fontos; DIAIL, deli, dalia, etc.

  • - Verbs of life and action: HUN, SUAN, húny, kum, szunnyad, alszik; FUIR, megvár; FAIR, elvár (FAIRÉ, virrasztás, őrködés <=> cf. Türkish BÜRE-mek, őrizni); NEADA-igh, nyugszik; EIR-igh, kel, ered (EFFRO, ébren, éber); ÉIR-igh, ér, elér, megér, megérik; AIR-igh, érez; UJTH, futás (lótás); LÚT-áil, meglódít, lóbál; TÉANA, jön; TAR tér, visszatér, megtér; CORRA-igh, kering, kerül (CORRAIGH ORT, gyere, gyerünk); IMIGH ~ MYND, megy (mend-); SAT-ail, gyalogol, sétál; SIÚIL szalad; SITHEAD, rohanás, hajsza; FUADA-igh, megszöktet (FUADAR, fürgeség); ACHAIR, kér; AGAIR, akar; IARR, kér, követel; keres, valamerre tart; CEAL, kell (szükség); ÉIGEAN, igény; DÉAN, tenni; FAIGH, indít, ösztönöz (ar FOGNI, nekifog); FUAIGH, megfog, összefog; GABH, elkap, megragad; URRA-igh, őriz (ÚRRA, őr; URRÚS, őrs, őrség); FAICH figyel, ügyel, oltalmaz; ÍOC, ügyel, ápol; SANN, kijelöl, kioszt, kiutal, felajánl (szán); CEAD, hagy, engedélyez (-hat / -het); TŰIG, tud, ért, ismer; DIÚLTA-, megtagad, megtilt; TACA-igh, alátámaszt (dúcol); TEANN, támasz; TOG, Hu; épít (tákol); emelkedik, dagad; LAGHDA, lohad, csökken, zsugorodik; TANA, csökken, elfogy, eltűnik; TOLL, összerak, tol; TOLG, lökdös, tolakszik; TYWALLT, tölt (TUIL, tele); URA-igh, árnyékol; SÉIMH-igh, lágyít, simít, simogat; BÁN-aid, bánt; BÁNAÍ, (el)bánás, gondozás (BÁNAI A DHÉANAMH, gondozni, nevelni); OIDHE, ütés; hirtelen halál; BUAIL, megüt, fejbe kólint, pall; CAITH, dob, hajít; SÍ, sí (sirít); RIOS, lenget, riszál; SÉID, felfúj, fokoz, szít; SEAD, csattint; SEÁP, csapás; REAB, széttép, szétzúz, repeszt (robban); ROB-áil, rabol; TORRI, tör; TÁIR, lealacsonyít, megrongál (tarol); SÁBH, vág, szab; SCOITH, letép (leszakít); DIALL, dől, el-/megdől; KOLL, elvész, elvesztődik (elkallódik); (ad-)BAIL, (meg-)hal; CEALG, csal, becsap (<=> CALAOIS, csalás); CEALA-igh, elrejt, elesel (<=> CHELL, játék, csel); SCOL, szól, szólít; BÉIC, ordít, bőg; FEAD-ail, fütyül; SEINN, zenél (SWN [szú.n], zaj, zenebona); CUACH, ölel, csókol (CUACH, csók, csokor); BÍS-igh, baszik, szaporodik / szaporít, bősít (<=> BÍS-iúil, szapora, termékeny); TOIRCH-igh, megtermékenyít (TORCHEAS, terhesség); IDU, vajúdás; SAOLA-igh, születik, etc.

"There are no eternal truths and dogmas in science. There are only theories in science, which have to be confronted with the emerging new facts" (L. Marácz).

The greatest part of the ancient layers of Celtic vocabulary resemble the Hungarian. The majority of these words cannot be found in any other "Indo-European" language. Moreover, the Celtic language builds its words with the same system of suffixes and prefixes as the Magyar. The suffixes and prefixes are the same. I am not saying that the Hungarian language descended from the Celtic, just as, in my opinion, it did not originate from the Finno-Ugric or the Türk languages. The Finno-Ugric theory of origins and the migration of a "peaceful" little group of people - which was derived from this theory - as well as the theory of Türk origins, the theory of bellicose, uncompromising armies, under the leadership of a ruling class striving for world dominance, are simply figments of the imagination, the relics of past centuries and dreams based upon different motivations.

We, Hungarians, have always been Scythians, the descendants of the great Scythian "race", the "Sabarto asphalo" people. Of course this does not mean that the Türks or even the Finns are not our relatives. However, this relationship is the same as the one with the Celts. Even so, we do not know one another's language; we cannot exchange a conversation with the Finns, the Turks, or the Celts. It is the "curse", or more precisely the "divine gift" of the agglutinative languages, that they were able to evolve in total independence. They had no need for language rules in order to come into existence, because the nation lives in its language, and the nation is kept alive by its language. This is the speech of a free people, which evolved freely and consequently gave birth to a freely evolving language: it is the gift of God from up high, or maybe it is "the language of Heaven".[47]



35 In this section, Irish words are written in capital letters, Hungarian words are in italics.

36 see: Turkish METIN, in Magyar méltó, jó, megbecsült = worthy, good, esteemed

37 see: FARAS-barr excess, surplus = FELES-leg (> Irish BARR csúcs)

38 at the same time the Irish NÍ expresses amazement (> NÍ MÉ Magyar csodálkozom) <=> Magyar NE, NA-hát!

39 Further examples: Irish SRA-ith line, series, line, order <> Hu: SOR (line) <> Türkish SIRA line, order.

40 Irish AIS-CHOTU feed-back = Hu: VISSZA-HATÁS (Irish COTHA-igh to have an influence on someone/what).

41 See: Türkish ASI gain <=> Irish US gain, interest, dividend <=> Magyar HASZ-on = gain.

42 See Japanese DA is similarly a form of the verb "to be" and they too use it with a meaning of “is”.

43 Following Julius Pokorny's Altirische Gramatik.

44 AR AIS means the Magyar "VISSZA" (back), more closely: AIS = Magyar HÁT (back of something), the other side: VISSZÁ-ja; AR = RÁ-, -RA/-RE, -ON.

45 Ellis, P. B,: Die Druiden, p. 46.

46 See: Irish CORRAIGH ort - Magyar GYERE, GYERÜNK.

47 Jones, W. J.: Welsh with Ease, p. 1.


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